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Glossary of Terms

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C

CMP (Comprehensive Metabolic Panel)

A group of 14 tests that provide important information about the status of kidneys, liver, electrolyte and acid/base balance, blood sugar and blood proteins. A broad screening tool, the CMP is also used to monitor complications of diseases or side effects of some medications.

C-reactive protein (CRP)

One of the plasma proteins known as acute-phase proteins: proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (or decrease) by 25% or more during inflammatory disorders. CRP is a test of value in medicine, reflecting the presence and intensity of inflammation although an elevation in C-reactive protein is not the absolute diagnostic sign of any one condition. Inflammation is believed to play a major role in the development of coronary artery disease; markers of inflammation have been tested in respect to heart health. In a recent study, CRP was found to be the only marker of inflammation that independently predicts the risk of a heart attack.

Carbohydrates

Primarily sugars and starches which constitute one of the three principal types of nutrients (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Carbohydrates come in complex forms such as starches and fiber and simple forms such as sugars. Most sugars and starches are broken down by the body into glucose, a simple sugar that can be used to feed cells.

Cardiologist

A physician who is certified to treat problems of the cardiovascular system—the heart, arteries and veins, all key areas damaged by Metabolic Syndrome. Cardiology is classified an internal medicine subspecialty. Knowledge of internal medicine and other specialties is required to obtain certification.

Cardiovascular Disease

A disease affecting the blood vessels or heart.

Cholesterol

The body's most common type of steroid, it is crucial to the formation of Vitamin D, sex hormones (progesterone, estrogens and androgens), mineralocortcoid hormones (aldosterone) and glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol) and bile acids (for digestion of fat). It is carried in the blood stream as lipoproteins, e.g. LDL (low density lipoproteins) or “good” cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoproteins) or “bad” cholesterol. Cholesterol is also essential for cell membrane function.

Chromium

A trace mineral considered essential to health, it is linked to the production of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) which affects insulin binding receptors and thus, stability of blood glucose levels. It is also involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Chromium picolinate

A biologically active chromium salt containing three picolinic acid ligands that is used as a dietary supplement.

Cimetidine (Tagamet)

Cimetidine belongs to a class of medications called H2-blockers that inhibit the action of histamine on the stomach cells, thus reducing stomach acid production.

Coronary heart disease (Coronary artery disease)

Coronary heart disease (or coronary artery disease) is the most common form of heart disease and affects the blood vessels (or coronary arteries) of the heart. It causes angina (chest pain) and heart attacks. High blood pressure and cholesterol, smoking, obesity and not being physically active all put individuals at risk for coronary heart disease.

Cortisol

A hormone released in the body during stressed or agitated states. But cortisol is more than a simple marker of stress levels - it is necessary for the functioning of almost every part of the body. Made in the adrenal glands, adjacent to the kidneys, it has important roles in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular functions, key areas affected by Metabolic Syndrome. Cortisol also helps to regulate the body's use of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.




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"Researchers agree that insulin resistance is central to the metabolic syndrome. When target cells are unresponsive to insulin, the pancreas responds by pouring even more insulin into the bloodstream, leading to high levels of the hormone in the blood, a condition called compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The high level of insulin in the blood forces glucose into cells but also starts the events leading to arterial damage and eventually a heart attack. Under these conditions, a person may not manifest either diabetes or heart disease but could well be on the way to either or both."
A. MAUREEN ROUHI, Chemical and Engineering News. November 22, 2004.Vol. 82, No.47  
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"Simply losing 5-7% of your body fat (typically 10-15 pounds) and increasing your physical activity by taking a brisk walk 4-5 times a week can reduce your risk of developing Type II Diabetes by almost 60%."
Diabetes Prevention Program study 2001, study funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, et al.
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"A non-pharmacologic treatment for these patients is needed, since drugs prescribed to lower blood pressure have been shown to actually worsen carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Syndrome X patients, negating the beneficial effects of those drugs."
Duke University Study, results published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, September 2003.
Article by Dr. Sheri Colberg, Phd, FACSM
"I cannot believe the difference the Insulite System has made in how I feel. My appetite has changed tremendously. I do not crave carbs and sugar and my appetite is somewhat diminished."
PR
  Bakersfield, CA
"...approximately 90% of overweight Hispanic children with a family history for type 2 diabetes have at least one feature of the metabolic syndrome and 30% possess the metabolic syndrome.

Our results support the view that improving insulin resistance may be crucial in the prevention of both type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease in this at-risk subpopulation of Hispanic youth."
Cruz ML, Weigensberg MJ, Huang TT, Ball G, Shaibi GQ, Goran MI.,J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jan;89(1):108-13.
"To gain the most benefit from modifying multiple metabolic risk factors, the underlying insulin-resistant state must become a target of therapy."
Bogdanovic, Streten and Langlans, Beata, "Metabolic Syndrome: New Opportunities in Diagnostics and Therapeutics", DMD Publications, 2004.  
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